Preclinical development is named as preclinical studies and nonclinical studies. It starts at the beginning of clinical traits; it also identifies the drug discovery process in a selected candidate. The preclinical development provides information on the pharmacokinetic, virological, pharmacological, and toxicological. Besides, non-clinical testing is required for risk assessment before increasing drugs in humans. Select the most promising microbicide candidate to progress in clinical traits and access the products.
Virological studies include a variety of test-tube experiments or in vitro assays to analyze the activity of the compound. Tests are also conducted to analyze the potential for HIV to develop drug-resistant mutations. When the virus is exposed in that mutation will reduce the exposure of HIV. Another test developed by the researchers is the ex viva model in which women’s cervical tissue is collected for the surgical procedure, is exposed to a microbicide and in order, HIV is evaluated. The microbicide presence will protect the tissue from infection with HIV.
Pharmacology studies are done on the candidate’s microbicides. The microbicide provides adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, central autonomic nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Additional researches are also conducted to acquire the effect of microbicides on normal sperm and vaginal bacteria. The preclinical research done by the scientists at pharmaceutical and biotech industries, it helps track the efficiency and safety testing in lead optimization and identification.
These methods are established to get the drugs to the tissues and cells; it should be to get effective results. ADME is known for the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Microbicides extensively are lower in other drugs because vaginal delivery is related to less systemic exposure than oral therapy. The scientist used an animal model in toxicity studies to metabolize the drugs a similar process takes place in humans.
Toxicological studies are performed to evaluate the potential effect of a microbicide. Acute toxicology occurs in substances or in new compounds that cause effects in singles or multiple exposures in a short period. The period of acute toxicity occurs within the 14 days of the administration of the substances. In subacute toxicity, adverse effects occur when the chemicals are given repeatedly to the organism or when it is exposed to the chemicals. The experimental animal’s period of exposure ranges from 28 days. Chronic toxicity occurs when the microbicides are exposed long term to the toxicants or other stressors.
It involves the examination of the dose-response relationship, comparative efficiency, and maximal effects of the new drugs with the existing drug; it increases the quantitative value of the drugs. Quantitative studies reduce the adverse effects in the candidate and also cure the diseases at the time of treatment.
All these above studies are carried out under standard procedure along with good laboratory practice to safeguard the integrity, safety, and quality of the preclinical trials. Preclinical development studies are important in evaluating the potential adverse effects of microbicides in tissues and organs. By providing the promising microbicide candidate will be helpful in the development of the products.